Essentials of Psychology By Robert G. Turner Jr., Ph.D. About the Author

Robert G. Turner Jr., Ph.D., has more than 20 years of teaching
and education-related experience. He has taught seventh-grade science,
worked as a curriculum developer for the Upward Bound
Program, and taught sociology, social psychology, anthropology,
and honors seminars at the university level. As a professional
writer, he has written nonfiction books, journal and magazine articles,
and stage plays.
All terms mentioned in this text that are known to be trademarks or service
marks have been appropriately capitalized. Use of a term in this text should not be
regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.
C o n t e n t s C o n t e n t s
Welcome to Essentials of Psychology! You?re entering a course
of study designed to help you better understand yourself
and others. For that reason, you can think of this course as
practical. It should be of use to you in living your life and
reaching the goals you set for yourself.
You?ll use two main resources for your course work: this
study guide and your textbook, Psychology and Your Life, 2nd
Edition, by Robert S. Feldman.
When you complete this course, you?ll be able to
n Describe the science and methodologies of psychology
in the context of its historical origins and major
n Outline the fundamental structure of the human nervous
system and explain how it relates to the organization of
human sensory perception
n Relate altered states of consciousness to sleep, hypnosis,
meditation, sensory deprivation, and physiological
responses to psychoactive drugs
n Discuss the basic concepts of behavioral psychology,
including classical conditioning, operant conditioning,
and cognitive learning theory
n Describe the nature of human memory in relationship to
thinking processes, intelligence, creativity, and intuition
n Explain the basic concepts of human motivation in
relationship to emotions
n Discuss concepts and models of personality, including
psychodynamic, trait, learning, evolutionary, and
humanistic approaches
n Explain concepts of intelligence and describe approaches
to assessing and measuring intelligence
I n s t r u c t i o n s I n s t r u c t i o n s
2 Instructions to Students
n Differentiate a healthy personality from a disordered
personality in the context of mental health and stress
n Discuss basic influences of social life and how people
respond to them
Your Essentials of Psychology course provides you with the
materials listed below:
1. This study guide, which includes
n A lesson assignments page that lists the schedule of
assigned readings in your textbook
n Self-checks and answers that allow you to measure
your understanding of the course material
n Introductions to the lessons and assignments
2. Your course textbook, Psychology and Your Life, 2nd
Edition, by Robert S. Feldman, which contains your
assigned readings
Success in your course depends on your knowledge of the
text. For that reason, you should take some time to look
through it from front to back. Give yourself a sense of how
the material is arranged. Here are some of the key features of
your text:
n ?About the Author? is found with the front matter of your
n A brief table of contents is found with the front matter of
your text.
n An extended table of contents is found with the front
matter of your text.
n A preface gives you an overview of chapter features.
Instructions to Students 3
n ?To the Students? is a vital feature of your text. We
strongly recommend that you become familiar with the
author?s SQ3R method and take full advantage of tips for
effective study and test-taking strategies.
n A modular format divides each chapter into related
topic groups.
n ?Learning Outcomes? are listed at the beginning of each
n ?Study Alerts? are highlighted in text margins. They?ll
help you stay focused on key ideas and concepts.
n ?From the Perspective of…? shows you how psychology
impacts different professions.
n ?Becoming an Informed Consumer of Psychology? helps
you think about practical applications of psychology in
your everyday life.
n ?Exploring Diversity? offers you opportunities for critical
analysis of psychological issues across cultures and ethnic
n ?Full Circle? end-of-chapter features give you a concept
map for modules included in a chapter.
n A ?Key Terms? summary helps you remember what you
need to remember.
n ?Looking Ahead/Looking Back? introduces key concepts
of the next chapter and summarizes the chapter you?ve
just completed to reinforce your learning.
n ?Recap/Evaluate/Rethink? end-of-module activities are
directly related to the module?s learning outcomes.
n ?Case Studies? at the end of each chapter offer excellent
opportunities to apply and analyze chapter content.
n Your text?s illustrations are captioned as figures. The
information contained in these graphics should be seen
as parts of your assigned text material. Assume their
content will reappear in self-checks and lesson exams.
This study guide is intended to help you achieve the maximum
benefit from the time you spend on this course. It isn?t meant
to replace your textbook. Instead, it serves as an introduction
to material you?ll read in the text and as an aid to assist you
in understanding this material.
This study guide provides your assignments in five lessons.
Each lesson contains two to three chapter assignments, with
Evaluate quizzes and a self-check for each assignment. A
multiple-choice examination follows each lesson. Be sure to
complete all work related to a lesson before moving on to the
next lesson.
For each lesson, do the following:
1. Read the instructions to each assignment in this study
guide. The instructions will provide you with the pages
in the textbook that must be read.
2. Now read the assigned pages in this study guide.
3. Then read the assigned pages in the textbook.
4. When you?ve finished the assignment, complete the selfcheck,
Evaluate quizzes, and discussion board posting.
Note: The Evaluate quizzes and self-checks aren?t graded
and are for your use only?don?t send your answers to
the school.
? Self-Checks: The self-checks are designed to indicate
how well you understand the material, so test
yourself honestly. Make every effort to complete the
questions before turning to the answers at the back
of the study guide. If you find any weak areas,
return to the text and review the relevant material
until you understand it.
? Evaluate Quizzes: With the exception of Assignment
12, each assignment lists Evaluate quizzes for you to
complete. Once you?ve taken the Evaluate quizzes,
you?ll find the answers upside-down on the same
page as the quiz. As with the self-checks, make
every effort to complete the questions before turning
4 Instructions to Students
to the answers. If you find any weak areas, return to
the text and review the relevant material until you
understand it.
? Discussion Board Posting: Each lesson has a
required discussion board that?s located on your student
portal. In order to receive credit for the
discussion board, you must make an initial
response to the question and respond to at least two
other students.
5. Follow this procedure for all assignments until you?ve
completed the lesson.
6. Once you?re confident that you understand all the material
for the lesson, complete the multiple-choice lesson examination.
The examination is open-book and is based on
both textbook and study guide material.
7. Repeat steps 1?6 for the remaining lessons in this
study guide.
If you have any questions, email your instructor.
Now review the lesson assignments on the following pages of
this study guide. Then begin your study of psychology with
Lesson 1, Assignment 1.
Good luck, and enjoy your studies!
Instructions to Students 5
6 Instructions to Students
Lesson 1: Psychology: The Science of the Mind
For: Read in the Read in
study guide: the textbook:
Assignment 1 Pages 9?20 Chapter 1
Assignment 2 Pages 22?30 Chapter 2
Assignment 3 Pages 32?40 Chapter 3
Examination 250053 Material in Lesson 1
Discussion Board 250054
Lesson 2: The Mind at Work
For: Read in the Read in
study guide: the textbook:
Assignment 4 Pages 43?51 Chapter 4
Assignment 5 Pages 52?60 Chapter 5
Assignment 6 Pages 61?73 Chapter 6
Examination 250055 Material in Lesson 2
Discussion Board 250056
Lesson 3: Motivation, Emotion,
Development, and Personality
For: Read in the Read in
study guide: the textbook:
Assignment 7 Pages 75?84 Chapter 7
Assignment 8 Pages 85?97 Chapter 8
Assignment 9 Pages 99?114 Chapter 9
Examination 250057 Material in Lesson 3
Discussion Board 250058
98 Essentials of Psychology
Self-Check 8
1. A researcher fills a short, squat glass with precisely one pint of an amber liquid. She puts this
beside a tall glass cylinder that also contains precisely one pint of the amber liquid. She then
asks a child which container contains the most liquid. The child selects the tall cylinder, in
which the fluid level is higher. Piaget would say this child hasn?t mastered the principle of
2. In the view of Erik Erikson, the developmental challenge of _______ is identity versus
3. The _______ parenting style is to lax discipline and inconsistent direction as the _______
style is to firm but gently established limits.
4. For Lev Vygotsky, the zone of _______ development is the level at which a child is ready to
increase his or her skill or knowledge if given scaffolding assistance from a mentor or teacher.
5. The intimate emotional bond that occurs between an infant and its immediate caregiver is a
crucial phase in a child?s _______ development. According to Mary Ainsworth, the ideal form
of this bond is called a/an _______ attachment.
6. The _______ theory of aging is to withdraw from social obligations, while the _______ theory
of aging is to be happy in one?s elder years by remaining busy and socially engaged.
7. The first stage of psychosocial development, according to Erikson, is _______ versus
8. According to Kohlberg?s theory of moral development, many people never get beyond the level
of ______ morality.
9. If we take a/an _______-processing approach to cognitive development, what we need to
know is how people take in, use, and store information.
10. For Piaget, the formal _______ stage of cognitive development isn?t reached until a child is
about 12 years old.
Date of Evaluation: Evaluator:

1. In an instance of _______ recovery, a conditioned response that has been extinguished reappears when a person is exposed to a related stimulus.
A. incomplete
B. spontaneous
C. generalized
D. automatic

2. You want to condition a pet pig to come running for a food reward when you blow a whistle. In the process of this conditioning effort, the main idea is to
A. teach the pig to pay attention to the sound of a whistle.
B. teach the pig to expect food when it’s hungry.
C. pair a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus.
D. pair a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus.

3. Which of the following statements regarding latent learning is most accurate?
A. Latent learning occurs without reinforcement.
B. Latent learning occurs in spite of negative reinforcement.
C. Latent learning doesn’t require cognitive processes.
D. Latent learning suggests that environmental knowledge is genetically predetermined.

4. According to information provided in your text, circadian rhythms are associated with
A. attacks of sleep apnea.
B. the occurrence of anxiety attacks.
C. the time of month that pregnant women are likely to go into labor.
D. cycles of waking and sleeping.

5. A casino slot machine has a random chance of paying out a prize each time a wager is made. This would be an example of
A. variable-ratio schedule.
B. fixed-ratio schedule .
C. non-variable-ratio schedule.
D. random-variable ratio schedule.

6. An important reason why people forget something is that they didn’t pay much attention to it in the first place. Psychologists refer to this kind of forgetting as
A. encoding failure.
B. cue-dependent.
C. decay.
D. interference related.

7. The most frequently abused nervous system depressant is
A. cocaine.
B. caffeine.
C. alcohol.
D. marijuana.

8. After taking the drug, Rupert reported vivid hallucinations, altered perception of sounds and colors, and distorted time perception. It’s most likely that the drug Rupert took was
C. cocaine.
D. marijuana.
9. Prescott is an old hand in the print shop. He insists that there’s only one dependable kind of process for printing a three-color brochure. By contrast, Baldwin recognizes several different approaches to three-color printing through the use of new digital technologies. Psychologists would say Prescott’s point of view is limited by his
A. obsessive perfectionism.
B. mental set.
C. mental laziness.
D. fundamental fixation.
10. A particular kind of neuron, called a _______ neuron, fires when we observe someone else’s behavior.
A. cognitive
B. mirror
C. reflective
D. modeling

11. During the _______ phase of problem solving, a means-ends analysis is a very common heuristic.
A. preparation
B. algorithm
C. production
D. judgment

12. While talking to Jim, Mary recalled that his birthday tomorrow. Mary wished him a happy birthday. What type of memory did Mary exhibit?
A. Implicit
B. Event
C. Explicit
D. Numerical
13. A common repetitive technique for moving new information from short-term memory to long-term memory is called
A. reduction.
B. selective reduction.
C. elaboration.
D. rehearsal.
14. A _______ reinforcement is one that satisfies a biological need.
A. conditional
B. positive
C. primary
D. neutral
15. In a lab devoted to sleep disorders, Julio points to the brain wave monitor, turns to Laura and says, “Subject is going into non-REM stage 2.” Laura looking at the monitor, says, “Got it; I’m recording the time.” What would Laura and Julio see on the monitor to assure them that the subject has entered stage 2 sleep?
A. Brain waves are irregular and episodic.
B. Brain waves are getting slower and more regular.
C. Sleep disturbance is indicated by sharp wave spikes.
D. Sleep spindles appear.
16. Which of the following would be considered an unconditioned response?
A. A monkey hits a red button when exposed to a bright light in order to receive a bit of food.
B. A dog barking when asked if it wants to go for a walk.
C. Pulling back your hand when touching a hot stove.
D. Getting excited when hearing a ring that sounds similar to the ringing of a winning casino game.
17. Which of the following statements regarding REM sleep is true?
A. REM sleep occurs during stage 3 sleep.
B. Dreaming causes major muscle contractions and tossing and turning.
C. REM sleep occurs only during stage 4 sleep.
D. Roughly 20 percent of adult sleep time is accompanied by REM.

18. You deprive your six-year-old of dessert each time he fails to eat his spinach. In this sort of _______, you weaken a response through taking away something pleasant or desired.
A. positive punishment
B. negative punishment
C. positive reinforcement
D. negative reinforcement

19. Trying to make sense of an article in the world events section of the Daily Mirror, Matlock turns to Thomas and asks, “Where’s Khartoum?” Thomas, looking up from his coffee, says, “Africa. It’s the capital of Sudan.” If you hold with the idea that long-term memory includes distinct modules, what sort of memory does Thomas’s reply indicate?
A. Declarative??episodic
B. Declarative??semantic
C. Procedural??episodic
D. Procedural??semantic
20. Natasha has been living Philadelphia for several months and is rapidly mastering the English language. However, she often turns to her American friend, Emily, when she is uncertain about a concept. One day, Natasha turns to Emily and asks, “What are you meaning when you say this word ‘vehicle’?” If you were Emily, which of these prototypes would be most likely to point to feel fairly certain that Natasha “gets it”?
A. An elevator
B. An automobile
C. A jet liner passing overhead.

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