The following is a guide to assist you in writing your essay.
Selection of your Case Study Students are required to select the scenario representative of their own health professional discipline and compare and contrast their duties in the chosen scenario to the duties of different health care professionals. If students are studying in a course that is a dual degree, they can focus on their two professional specialties for this assessment task.
As there are many disciplines undertaking the unit, you should pick the scenario that will represent a moral dilemma in your discipline. The scenarios are mainly generic and if you look at them holistically, they will demonstrate a multidisciplinary perspective. Think about how you would be involved in any given scenario.
As a guide only I have provided the following general essay information.
Paragraph and essay structure
An essay includes an introduction, body and conclusion.
The assessment task is 2000 words.
1. The introduction should provide the reader with a framework for the essay and what will be discussed. Sometimes it?s easier to write the introduction last or after you have completed outlining what you will be discussing. (Approximately 100 words)
2. The body of the essay is the crux of your discussion and will consume the bulk of your words. Your paragraph structure is important to note as follows:
? Each paragraph should have an introductory and concluding statement.
? Each paragraph should have a direct connection with the one prior and one after it. This allows the essay to flow.
3. The conclusion should provide a summary of the key points presented in the essay. (Approximately 100 words)
4.The definitions used in your essay should only use academic references (not online dictionaries)
5. It is important to note that this is an academic essay and should be written in the third person.
6. There are no minimum requirements for the number of sources you use however as a general guideline an academic paper can have 1 source per hundred words.
7. In regards to the currency of the references, there is no pre-determined time limit on the publication dates of your philosophical sources. However, if the discussion concerns current practice in your profession it will be expected that current and relevant literature is used (Usually within 5 years published age). If you have sourced a reference that is older than this you must demonstrate how it is relevant in your writing.
Finally from the rubric defining what we mean by the following:
Content, evidence and examples
Everything you have included should be relevant to the scenario and to the unit ? Health care ethics and health law. Examples to support you resolution will enhance your discussion. You can source these from real legal cases that are accessible through the library or online.
Critical thinking, reasoning and evaluation of the evidence ? What do the experts state regarding the topic? Here you present the research you have undertaken and looking at different perspectives. You should then synthesis the research by asking yourself ?What connections can I make regarding the research into expert discussions? and finally evaluation means what conclusion do I come to after presenting the arguments based on my analysis and synthesis?
Referencing ? Must be APA 6th edition.
Assessment Task 3: Essay ? An Ethical Dilemma
Case study 4, address the following points.
1. Determine the stakeholders including two health care professionals in the case scenario:
RN, Paramedic and Patient
2. Differentiate the ethical and legal conflicts and explain them from the following perspectives:
? The dignity and rights of stakeholders in this case
RN ? Deontology and Virtuous, has the stakeholder done the right thing? PARAMEDIC ? Deontology,
PATIENT ? Libertarianism (dignity of patient)
? The principles of health care ethics that inform professional practice
RN ? Beneficence, Non-maleficence, PARAMEDIC – Non-maleficence, PATIENT – Respect for autonomy
? The relevant nursing codes of ethics and codes of professional conduct
RN ? Code of Conduct/Code of Ethics
PARAMEDIC ? Code of Conduct
PATIENT- Rights & Responsibilities
3. Propose a legally and ethically defensible resolution to these conflicts
? Is it ethically defendable
? Did the patient have capacity to give consent?
? Just because its ethical is it legal go against the patients wishes
? Justify why the nurse has called the ambulance
CASE STUDY FOUR
Elsie Lee, 88 years old had recently moved to a Residential Aged Care Facility (RAC). She had difficulty mobilising due to severe rheumatoid arthritis as well as short-term memory and vision impairment. Elsie also had a history of AMI, removal of bilateral cataracts, and a (L) hip replacement four years ago. On admission to the RAC facility, on Tuesday afternoon, the Nurse Manager suggested that Elsie consider making out an advanced care directive (ACD), indicating what she would want done in the event that her health should deteriorate. Elsie agreed and awaited the help of her family when they visited on Sunday. She was pleased to have this opportunity as, although she had discussed her wishes with her family, she wanted to make it clear to staff caring for her that she did not want aggressive treatment of any kind and did not want to be resuscitated. On Friday night, Elsie developed severe chest pain, which radiated down her (L) shoulder, an irregular pulse and a BP of 73/48 and the RN on duty called the ambulance. Elsie pleaded with the paramedics to leave her ?as she was?; the R.N. insisted that they transport Elsie to hospital, as she had not filled out an ACD indicating otherwise. In transit to the hospital, Elsie suffered a cardiac arrest. The paramedics attempted resuscitation but were unsuccessful. On arrival to the ED, Elsie was pronounced dead. Her family determined that Elsie?s death was brought on by the stress of being moved to hospital. They decided to sue the R.N., the paramedics and the RAC facility for assault and battery.
Codes of Ethics for Australian health professionals
Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council Code of Ethics http://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/Codes-Guidelines-Statements/Codes- Guidelines.aspx
Australian Medical Association Code of Ethics
Speech Pathology Australia Code of Ethics
Paramedics Australasia Code of Conduct (no Code of Ethics)
Occupational Therapy Code of Conduct (no Code of Ethics) http://www.occupationaltherapyboard.gov.au/Codes-Guidelines.aspx
Physiotherapy Code of Conduct (no Code of Ethics)
References / Further Reading
Bilsen J., Vander Stichele R., Mortier F. & Deliens L. (2004). Involvement of nurses in physician-assisted dying. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 47 (6): 583-591. Brock, D. (2008).
Conscientious refusal by physicians and pharmacists: who is obligated to do what, and why?, Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics, 29 (3): 187-200.
Fisher,A. & Gormally, L. (eds).(2001). Healthcare allocation: An ethical framework for public policy. London: The Linacre Centre, P103 Grainger, J. (2011).
Presentation to Victorian Parliament SARC Committee on human rights, conscience and the nursing profession. State Government of Victoria? Melbourne
Kerridge, I., Lowe, M., & Stewart, C. (2013). Ethics and Law for the Health Professions (4th ed.). Sydney: The Federation Press.
Kuhse, H. (1997) Caring: Nurses, women and ethics. Blackwell, Oxford. Lysaught, M. T. (2004). Respect: Or, how respect for persons became respect for autonomy.
The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 29(6), 665. McCabe, H. (2007).
Nursing involvement in euthanasia: How sound is the philosophical support? Nursing Philosophy 8 (3): 167- 175.
McCoy, A. (2004). An intelligent person’s guide to Christian ethics. London: Continuum Pellegrino, E. (2005). Some things ought never be done: Moral absolutes in clinical ethics.
Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics, 26(6): 469- 486. Pope Paul VI. (1966). British Medical Journal, Vol. 332(7536), 294-297. Sulmasy, D. (2008). What is conscience and why is respect for it so important? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics, 29 (3): 135-49. Wicclair, M. (2008).