Please pay special attention to page 1 and first paragraph on page 2
1. Here is the instructions for this assignment: write a 2 page paper addressing the sections below of the research proposal (please follow rubric= assignment 2
grading criteria). 2. Begin by reviewing the feedback from your faculty member from Week 2 and revise your research question if needed. (please see wk 2 graded paper
and fix it per instructor comments) may use any informations in that paper.
? Research Question (PICOT Format)
? Hypothesis: Research and Null
? Variables with Operational Definitions
? Sample/Setting: Number and criteria for inclusion and description of place in which data will be collected.
? Sampling Strategy
? Extraneous Variables (and plan for how controlled).
Hint from instructor:
The hypothesis could be:
Polar bears that are given additional food at the breeding grounds will produce more cubs.
The null hypothesis could be:
Polar bears that were given additional food did not produce more cubs.
Assignment 2 Grading Criteria Maximum Points
Refined research question based on faculty feedback. 5
Research Hypothesis is appropriate for research question. 5
Nul Hypothesis is appropriate for research question. 5
Study Variables are operationally defined. 5
Sample is appropriate and addresses all criteria. 5
Setting is appropriate and addresses all criteria. 5
Sampling Strategy is fully explained. 5
Summarizes 1 nursing research article that provide supportive evidence. 5
Followed APA guidelines for writing style, spelling and grammar, and citation of sources. 10
Here is the general informations about this research topic and role of family nurse practitioner. Topic for this research paper is diabetes type 2 and complications
prevention ( as a role of family nurse practitioner is educate patients about diabetes, exercise, diet, and loose weight)
Describes problem and relevance to role option
Diabetes is a fairly large and complex challenge that is considerably increasing at an alarming rate. In 2010, it was projected that 25.6 million Americans above the
age of 20 years were diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Additionally, more than 79 million people were also observed to exhibit pre-diabetes symptoms such as high-
blood sugar levels, but not sufficient to be classified as diabetes (Robertson, 2012; Boyle, Thompson, Gregg, Barker & Williamson, 2010). Research indicates that both
age and obesity are huge risk factors associated with diabetes. Therefore, the ever increasing aging population coupled with the high prevalence of obesity suggests
that the incidence of T2D in the US and the world is likely to continue increasing at an alarming rate. This paper evaluates the role of the Family Nurse Practitioner
(FNP) in the monitoring, diagnosis, and treatment of T2D. This research will evaluate supporting evidence from three different scholarly journals to support this
statement. Evidence from the literature on the management of diabetes suggests that Family Nurse Practitioners (FNPs) have an essential role to perform in controlling
the prevalence of the disease in the community health setting.
The extent of the independence of the FNP varies considerably with regard to the location in which the practice is established. On most occasions, the FNP works
independently from a physician. In certain circumstances, it is necessary for FNP to discharge their duties in collaboration with a qualified physician. The
responsibilities, duties, pharmacologic capacity, and medical treatment offered by a FNP are dependent on the level of licensure they hold. It has widely been
identified in research that the early detection and intensive management of hyperglycemia in T2D can considerably improve the patients? outcomes. This has been
observed in large randomized control trials investigating the extent to which patients are able to control glycemic levels when suffering from T2D. For example, the
United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) that encompassed a sample of recently diagnosed T2D patients revealed that for each 1% decrease in alcohol, it
resulted in a 21% decrease in diabetes-related mortality, a 14 % decrease in myocardial infraction, a 37 % decrease in microvascular complications (Robertson, 2012).
According to Robertson (2014), most patients usually find it challenging to adhere to a lifestyle modification proposed by the physicians during the initial stages of
T2D, which requires that ongoing support should be offered. Various treatment regimens are proposed. Patient-centered approaches are particularly significant in
assisting patients to control their body weight and adhere to their treatment regime. Therapy should be focused on the patient?s well-being, as well as aspiring to
provide the clarity and support required to enable the patient to make informed decisions that would help them attain relevant treatment goals. The FNPs have an
essential role to play in relation to patients diagnosed with T2D, in terms of offering patient education, clarifying treatment regimens, and providing support and
encouragement to patients to implement lifestyle changes and sustain their self-management. This role is particularly essential as the patients go through the disease
continuum, as well as new forms of therapy continue to emerge in the market. This means that each transition from one treatment regimen to other needs renewed
education and support.
According to Chang, Davis, Birt, Castelluccio, Woodbridge and Marrero (2007), FNPs are an integral component of most diabetes care and therapy programs. In these
programs, FNPs evaluate and monitor the conditions of the patients, coordinate and manage diabetes care (through the provision of home care, social services,
psychiatric contacts, and pharmacy services), as well as educating the patients on diabetes to ensure that they adhere to their treatment and self-management
activities. Additionally, FNPs relay patient information and data to the relevant physicians and other professional medical practitioners. In some programs, FNPs are
used to implement follow-up care services, refer patients to specialists, and make alterations to the patients? dosage medication without necessarily consulting a
physician, but in line with the prescribed algorithms and guidelines.
Jessee and Rutledge (2012) conducted a study to evaluate the effectiveness of coordinated multidisciplinary teams in the management of diabetes. The study revealed
that patients who were enrolled in multidisciplinary teams that included FNPs exhibited better clinical outcomes. Patients under the care and support of FNPs had more
knowledge and information about T2D and enhanced self-efficacy during and after the intervention compared to those under the normal care. This implies that FNPs are an
integral component in the management and treatment of T2D. Patients suffering from T2D are required to make significant changes in their lifestyles after being
diagnosed with the disease. Long-term treatment is particularly difficult because the treatment regimens are usually complex. Patients may be required to implement
lifestyle changes and maintain pharmacologic therapy for comorbidities associated with diabetes, such as dyslipidemia and hypertension. The treatment of these
comorbidities require a combination of therapy regimens, which should be effectively managed. The coordination and maintenance of these treatment regimens is
challenging and complex. Therefore, patient education and comprehension of the disease and treatment approaches is an essential aspect of managing the disease, which
is a critical role played by FNPs.
Evidence from the literature on the management of diabetes suggests that Family Nurse Practitioners (FNPs) have an essential role to perform in controlling the
prevalence of the disease in the community health setting. They provide diagnosis, treatment, referrals, and educate the patients about the disease. Family Nurse
Practitioners also carry out follow-up programs to make sure that the patients follow strictly the self-management programs and treatment regime that have been
prescribed by a physician. It is evident that FNPs play an essential role in the management and control of the prevalence of T2D.
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